Tyumen (Russian: Тюмень; IPA: [tʲʉˈmʲenʲ]) is the largest city and the administrative center of Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located on the Tura River 2,500 kilometers (1,600 mi) east of Moscow.
Tyumen was the first Russian settlement in Siberia. Founded in 1586 to support Russia's eastward expansion, the city has remained one of the most important industrial and economic centers east of the Ural Mountains. Located at the junction of several important trade routes and with easy access to navigable waterways, Tyumen rapidly developed from a small military settlement to a large commercial and industrial city. The central part of Old Tyumen retains many historic buildings from throughout the city's history.
Today Tyumen is an important business center. Tyumen is the transport hub and industrial center of Tyumen Oblast—a vast oil-rich region stretching from the Kazakhstani border to the Arctic Ocean—as well as the home of many companies active in Russia's oil and gas industry.
Tyumen covers an area of 235 square kilometers (91 sq mi). Its primary geographical feature is the Tura River, which crosses the city from northwest to southeast. The river is navigable downstream of the city. The left bank of the Tura is a floodplain surrounded by gently rolling hills. The Tura is a shallow river with extensive marshlands.